This seminar report was created to assist developers in maximizing application performance on new Intel® graphics technologies, primarily focused on the new Intel® microarchitecture codenamed Ivy Bridge. The document will introduce the new architecture and detail best practices with a focus on the DirectX 9, 10 and 11 APIs. Following the guidelines laid out in this document will help the developer’s game reach optimal performance on Intel processor graphics while providing a great gaming experience to the largest possible market. As reported by Mercury Research in the second quarter of 2011, Intel’s combined integrated graphics line currently enjoys the largest market share, standing at 50.4% for desktop parts, 59% for mobile parts. With the introduction of the Intel microarchitecture codenamed Sandy Bridge, the graphics processor has moved onto the same die as the CPU, and is now referred to as “processor graphics”. In addition, processor graphics has enjoyed numerous architectural improvements that yield significant performance improvements over previous generations of Intel® integrated graphics parts. The new generation of microarchitecture, codenamed Ivy Bridge, provides another jump in functionality and performance over Sandy Bridge microarchitecture. Ivy Bridge microarchitecture is manufactured on the new 22nm process technology, incorporating Intel’s new tri-gate (or 3D) transistor technology. This innovative new process yields greater performance at much lower power. For example, the new tri-gate transistors exhibit 36% faster switching speed than the equivalent transistors on the legacy process at the same voltage. Tri-gate transistors also leak about 10x less current in their off state, resulting in a power saving of approximately 50% when using a comparable performance profile.
The resulting completed flip chip assembly is much smaller than a traditional carrier-based system; the chip sits directly on the circuit board, and is much smaller than the carrier both in area and height. The short wires greatly reduce inductance allowing higher-speed signals, and also conduct heat better.
What's next: Bump is gearing up to release version 2.0 of its flagship app in the next few months, which the company promises will include a range of new features derived from user feedback. In the long term, the company hopes to become a standard service used by smartphone owners--and once it reaches that point, company management will begin implementing an official revenue model.
1.Sharinng contacts between two smartphones by bumping them.
2.Sharinng photos between two smartphones.
Problems and challenges in creating Bump technology
A free iPhone social networking application called Bump, which lets users quickly share personal contact information and photos, created a buzz at the CTIA International wireless conference.Bump, from Bump Technologies Inc. in Mountain View, Calif., first appeared in March, and was distinguished as the billionth download from Apple Inc.'s App Store. Thanks to that achievement, it was prominently featured in an iPhone TV ad and drew the attention of iPhone users -- and six months later, the level of attention seems to have multiplied.Bump aroused the curiosity of analysts and technology buffs at CTIA partly because of the way it uses AT&T Inc.'s network and the iPhone's built-in GPS functionality and sensors to help users share their contact information.The Bump allows two users who have loaded the app onto their iPhones clench their devices in their hands and then tap their hands together in a gentle fist bump to begin the exchange of information stored in each phone.A bartender at a CTIA party who noticed mobile phone executives playing with phones in the crowd remarked that Bump is his favorite iPhone app. "I don't know how it works, but you just bump another person, and it works," he said.So, how does it work?
IDC analyst Scott Ellison said most Bump users mistakenly believe the device transmits the data over the air via Bluetooth or an infrared signal. However, the app actually relies on AT&T's 3G cellular or EDGE networks or Wi-Fi to transmit the data between phones.The Bump FAQ gives more details about how the phones identify each other and how each knows that the other is ready to transmit data.According to the FAQ, the Bump app runs on the iPhone and a matching algorithm runs on a server in the cloud. The app on the phone uses the sensors on the phone to "feel" the bump, sending that information to the server. The algorithm responds to bumps from phones globally and pairs up phones that "feel" the same bump, and it then routes the contact information between the two phones in the pair. The process takes less than 10 seconds.Ellison said that Bump relies on GPS to give the location of each phone, but it also uses the iPhone's accelerometer, which detects movement.The FAQ says that if two pairs of users bump their phones at the same time and in close proximity to each other -- at a crowded party, for example -- and the server can't identify the specific matches, the pairs will be asked to bump again.The communications between the phones and the server are encrypted for greater security. Once a bump is made, the server will find the two phones that felt the bump and then ask each one to transmit the contact information, but nothing else, the FAQ says. If both users confirm that the match is correct, the information is sent to the other party.Bump Technologies said that it plans to keep the basic version free for the "entire foreseeable future" and that it is working to make the app available for other smartphones equipped with sensing technologies "in the near future."The Apple App Store includes a variety of customer reviews that show how Bump is used. One comment, by someone identified as Paddledave, says the app is "great if you are in a bar and too drunk to trade contacts." Another by a user dubbed cwinfoseeker says, "it's cool but it would be way better if u could bump music and apps with ur friends."Ellison said the Bump is "very, very snazzy" and is a good example of the capabilities of emerging mobile technologies.
Bump Technology has definitely gotten a lot of attention, mostly due to the gimmicky feel of the service, which allows users to swap a wide range of data–contacts, photos and soon, much more–when they tap two phones together.There have been lots of versions of this kind of thing over the years, of course, using a variety of technologies. But the surge in smartphone popularity and app use has made digitally enabled physical transactions a whole lot easier.
These days, even competing operating systems, like those for the Apple iPhone and Google Android devices, can “bump” in a much nicer way than they are currently doing as companies.
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