Marine Pollution

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Marine Pollution
Over half the population of US is crowded close to the shores, partly because of entertaining and artistic considerations. More and more, however, the near shore ocean is the receiver of a multitude of toxic or aggressive materials. Until recently the oceans with their vast area and volume have seemeda safe site for the disposal of wastes. Recent events are causing secondthoughts. (ABELSON, 1971)
There are two major marine pollutants:
1) Plastic
Americans alone put about 2.5 million plastic bottles per hour into the ocean, according to the Icelandic environmental consulting group Beluga. That is only a small part. About 70 percent of global plastic pollution comes from industry rather than from consumers. Currents tend to focus the plastic into wreckage fields.The large volume of plastic produced by human doings and its resolve in the environment make it a harmful marine pollutant whose effects only build over time. Marine animals can become tangled in plastics and die. Sea turtles eat plastic bags, befuddling them with jellyfish. Sea birds also eat plastic, befuddling pellets with fish eggs. The plastics can clog the animals' digestive tracts, causing them to starve to death. As plastic ages, it breaks down into particles and chemicals that pollute the waters beyond the debris fields. Microplastics also wash directly into the ocean in cleaning products. The tiny plastic pellets act as carriers for toxic chemicals.(DeLee)
2) Oil and chemical Spills
Recent research studies by NOAA scientists have shown that even small amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons can impair the successful development of fish eggs and embryos. Oil spills stem from accidents involving tankers, barges, pipelines, refineries, and storage facilities, often while the oil is being transported to its users. Oil, in high enough concentrations, can poison animals by internal and external routes of exposure.(IXTOC I, 1979)
And as shown in the chart there is increasing care of safety after the massive accidents that happened along the history of oil spills. Were the worst was Ixtoc I Oil Well Blowout The exploratory oil well Ixtoc I exploded in the Gulf of Mexico on June 3, 1979, spewing 140 million gallons of oil into the open sea. It took control experts more than nine months to cap the spill and begin cleanup.

Air Quality

Air pollution is the damage in air quality by introduction of certain chemicals and other biological materials that can cause dangerous conditions for humans to breathe. Air pollution can always cause damage to the natural environment or even to any living orgasm.
The gases and other resources which rise up from different factories, homes, cars and other kinds of sources gather up on the stratosphere causing a threat to human health.(Air Quality)
The air quality of any region is controlled by the climate, topography, natural and anthropogenic activitiesthat occur in that and surrounding regions concerned. A deterioration in air quality results from theemission of gaseous and particulate matter into the atmosphere. Depending on the levels and nature ofemissions, polluted air has the potential to impact negatively on the environment. Air pollution mayresult in disturbances to ecosystems, climatic conditions, biogeochemical cycles and human health.Air movement is an important means of dispersing airborne matter, such as seeds, gas and dustparticles.
Air quality is serious issue.? According to a study, living in a major city, places people at a higher risk than living in the radioactive zone in Chernobyl.
Major Air pollutants are:

  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Nitrogen oxides
  • Particular matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1)
  • Ozone and volatile organic compounds
  • Toxic Organic Micro-Pollutants (TOMPS)
  • Benzene
  • 1,3-Butadiene
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Lead and heavy metals

Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. (Renewables 2011 Global Status Report, 2011)

Main renewable energy sources are:
? Solar
? Wind
? Biomass
? Hydrogen
? Geothermal
? Ocean
? Hydropower
Fossil fuels are non-renewable and will eventually run out because we are using them much faster than they can be restored within the earth. Burning fossil fuels produces photochemical pollution from nitrous oxides, and acid rain from sulphur dioxide. Burning fuels also produce greenhouse gases including vast amounts of carbon dioxide that may be causing the phenomenon of global warming that the planet is currently experiencing.(Non-Renewable Energy)

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