??????????? The advancement and latest development of major construction is largely associated with improving the efficiency of the building under seismic effect, reducing cost, economic use of new materials etc., concrete is one such material, which is consumed in construction industry next to water consumption in the world. This marvelous material is strong in compression but very weak in tension.? Use of dispersed reinforcement in the cement based matrix/concrete attains promising new material and eliminates certain drawbacks and entrances certain property.
1.2 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND
Historically, fibers were used to reinforced the brittle material since ancient times, straws were used to reinforce sun-baked bricks, horse hairs were used to reinforce plaster and asbestos fibers were used to reinforce cement.
??In 1910, porter put the idea that concrete can be strengthened by the inclusion of fibers. Till 1963; there was only slow progress on fiber reinforced concrete (FRC).? Romualdi and Batson gave rise to FRC by conducting numerous experimental works to determine the basic engineering properties such as compressive, tensile strength FRC.
Typical types of fibers used are steel, acrylic asbestons, glass, xylon, polyster, polyethylene, polypropylene, rayon, rock wool and so on.? Steel fibers are available in round, flat, reimped, deformed forms.? Steel fibers were used in different structural elements in various zones and investigated its performance.? Now-a-days synthetic fibers have become more attractive and used for the reinforcement of cementitious materials.
?Fiber Reinforced Cement? as a material made from hydraulic cement and discrete, discontinuous fibers (containing no aggregate).? ?Fiber reinforced concrete? (FRC) is made with hydraulic cement, aggregates of various sizes, in corporating discrete, discontinuous fibers.? Both are firmly established as a new construction material.
Steel fibers and synthetic fibers find applications in civil engineering on a larger scale by virtue of their inherent advantages; it is of interest to note that the performance of concrete can be enhanced through the employment of these micro-reinforcements in a hybrid form.? The volume of data available on the performance studies of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete appears to be inadequate for a better understanding the investigation, it is proposed to combine these fibers at different proportions in the beam structural elements and engineering properties and performance are being investigated.
The necessity for the addition of fibers in structural material is to increase the strength of the concrete and mortar and also to reduce the crack propagation that mainly depends on the following parameters.
High strength fibers, favorable orientation large volume, fiber length and diameter of fiber have been found independently to improve the strength of composites.? The steel fiber is known to have possessed high tensile strength and ductility.
The most significant factor affecting resistance to crack propagation and strength of the fibrous concrete and mortar are
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