AVR Microcontroller

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AVR microcontrollers have a RISC architecture 8 Bit, so all the instructions packaged in 16-bit code (16-bits word) and most of the instructions executed in one instruction cycle clock. And this really differentiate once with MCS-51 instructions (CISC Architecture of) that requires 12 clock cycles. RISC is Reduced Instruction Set Computing, while CISC is Complex Instruction Set Computing.

     AVR grouped into 4 classes, namely ATTiny, family AT90Sxx, ATMega family, and the family AT86RFxx. Of all the classes distinguish from each other is the size of the onboard memory, on-board peripherals and functions. In terms of architecture and the instructions they used to say about the same.
Architecture ATMega8535
     * IO channels as much as 32 ??pieces, namely Port A, Port B, Port C and Port D
     * ADC 10 bit by 8 Channel
     * Three timer / counter
     * 32 registers
     * Watchdog Timer with internal oscillator
     * SRAM as many as 512 bytes
     * Flash memory is 8 kb
     * Internal and external interrupt sources
     * Port SPI (Serial Interface pheriperal)
     * EEPROM on board as many as 512 bytes
     * Analog Comparator
     * Port USART (Universal Shynchronous Ashynchronous Receiver Transmitter)

Features ATMega8535
     * System-based 8-bit RISC processor with speeds up to 16 MHz.
     * The size of 8KB flash memory, 512 bytes of SRAM, EEPROM of 512 bytes.
     * Internal ADC with 10 bit resolution channel by 8
     * USART serial communication port with a maximum speed of 2.5 Mbps
     * Sleep mode to save power consumption
Flash is a type of Read Only Memory that is usually filled with the results of a man-made program to be executed by the microcontroller
RAM (Random Access Memory) is a memory that helps the CPU for temporary data storage and processing of data when the program is running
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) is a memory for storing data permanently by the programs that are currently running
Port I / O is the distance to an exit or entry signal as output or input for program
Timer is in the hardware module to calculate working time / pulse
UART (Universal Asynchronous Receive Transmit) is a specialized data communication lines are asynchronous serial
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) is a facility to make the pulse modulation
ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) is a facility to be able to receive analog signals within a certain range and then converted to a digital value within a certain range
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) is a specialized data communication lines are a serial synchronous serial
ISP (In System Programming) is a special ability microcontroller to be programmed directly in the circuit system with a minimal number of pins needed

Broadly speaking, ATMEGA8535 microcontroller architecture consists of:
     * 32 channels of I / O (Port A, Port B, Port C and Port D)
     * 8 Channel 10 bit ADC (Analog to Digital Converter)
     * 4 channel PWM
     * 6 Sleep Modes: Idle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended Standby
     * 3 pieces of timer / counter
     * Analog comparator
     * Watchdog timer with internal oscillator
     * 512 bytes of SRAM
     * 512 bytes EEPROM
     * 8 kb Flash memory with the ability to Read While Write
     * Units interruptions (internal & external)
     * Port interface SPI8535 "memory map"
     * Port USART for serial communication with a maximum speed of 2.5 Mbps
     * 4.5 to 5.5V operation, 0 to 16MHz

Pin Configuration ATMega8535
     * VCC pin that serves as an input pin power supply
     * Ground Pin GND is
     * Port A (PA0. .. PA7) is a pin I / O pins and ADC input
     * Port B (PB0. .. PB7) is an I / O pins and pins that have special functions: Timer / Counter, Comparator Analog and SPI
     * Port C (PC0. .. PC7) is an I / O port and a pin that has a special function, namely analog comparator and Timer Oscillator
     * Port D (PD0. .. PD1) is a port I / O and special function pins are analog comparator and an external interrupt and serial communication
     * RESET pin is used to reset the microcontroller
     * XTAL1 and XTAL2 is an external clock input pin
     * AVCC is the input pin for the voltage ADC
     * AREF is the input pin for the ADC reference voltage

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