Fingerprint verification or fingerprint authentication refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify individuals and verify their identity. This article touches on two major classes of algorithms (minutia and pattern) and four sensor designs (optical, ultrasonic, passive capacitance, and active capacitance)
The analysis of fingerprints for matching purposes generally requires the comparison of several features of the print pattern. These include patterns, which are aggregate characteristics of ridges, and minutia points, which are unique features found within the patterns. It is also necessary to know the structure and properties of human skin in order to successfully employ some of the imaging technologies.
The three basic patterns of fingerprint ridges are the arch, loop, and whorl:
? arch: The ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in the center forming an arc, and then exit the other side of the finger.
? loop: The ridges enter from one side of a finger and then exit on that same side.
? whorl: Ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger.
Scientists have found that family members often share the same general fingerprint patterns, leading to the belief that these patterns are inherited
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