This article presents an overview of the technical aspects of the existing technologies for wireless indoor location systems. The two major challenges for accurate location finding in indoor areas are the complexity of radio propagation and the ad hoc nature of the deployed infrastructure in these areas. Because of these difficulties a variety of signaling techniques, overall system architectures, and location finding algorithms are emerging for this application. This article provides a fundamental understanding of the issues related to indoor geolocation science that are needed for design and performance evaluation of emerging indoor geolocation systems
A lot of location finding techniques has been in use nowadays. And every time a new technique aroused, it presented a more accurate performance in finding the intended location. The recent advancements in technology have also generated an interest in people to rely upon the various locations finding technique in the day to day life.
The Global Positioning System is such a technique which gained a wide spread public attention and support. But none of these location finding techniques could satisfy the demands of indoor geolocation. The reason is the unique problems or challenges of the field and the salient characteristics of its market.
The most popular location finding technique was the Global Positioning System as we discussed above. But this technology was unable to register access to the indoor spaces over the globe. They were beyond the reach of the satellites of the GPS service. The main reason of failure of these satellites was their high originating signals. These signals were not designed to penetrate the construction materials. This fact discouraged all the expectations of following the commerce of the world by GPS as the major part of it is being performed indoors. Presently high cost procedures are being followed in tracking the works in progress such as manufacturing. In large offices, locating particular individuals is also a prominent issue as it disturbs the normal functioning of the office.
All these systems share a common problem. They fail in finding people and assets inside buildings. The differences of an efficiently performing asset tracking system from the earlier GPS system are moreover basic. Most prominently, the situation control which was entrusted with the GPS receiver users is shifted, casting enquiries to the system to have access to their position, to check on many such assets or persons that were marked. If we look upon the Global Positioning System, its receiver requires finding its own position related to some reference. But in indoor geolocation the infrastructure has the responsibility of keeping the record of the available tags.
A precise geolocation technique is one of the important technologies that are about to emerge. They have wide applications in the field of military, public safety and commerce. On having a mere look in the commercial sector, it appears to us that this location technique is of greater use for institutions like nursing homes or such social service institutions to be updated with the information of the individuals who require special attention and care or those with particular needs. They will also be helpful in large hospitals to provide the portable facilities at the right place at the right time. Moving on to the military applications, the tracking of the prisoners and the policemen in duty or in patrol is possible by this location technique. It is also helpful for soldiers in their missions inside buildings.
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