Remote Patient Monitoring System

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PROJECT OBJECTIVE

??? ?????In this chapter introduction of the PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM TO REMOTE DOCTORS USING GSM AND ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY are discussed. It gives overall view of the project design and the related literature and the environment to be considered. Chapter wise organization of the thesis and the appendices is given at the end of this chapter. At first we discuss the main processing done using 8051 microcontroller is and then what is the process that can be automated which is within the scope of the work. Then we discuss the implementation aspects.

1.2. OVERVIEW
??? ???In case of emergency and dangerous situations we have to alert the doctor immediately. For this we are using a Zigbee based network for doctor to patient communication in the hospital and even to communicate and indicate the status of the patient through SMS. This way of communication is actually done with Zigbee network topology and with the GSM network. Each patient will be given this module and with the help of this module the patient health condition is monitored and if there is any change in the condition of the health then it immediately sends that changed data through Zigbee to the local system where the main module is connected to the computer to maintain the status of the patient.
The heart beat is monitored with the pulse rate of the body. The high intensity light sensor senses the expansion and contraction of the heart with the help of the nerves. That beam will transmit the signal to the receiver and the minute change in the pulse is noticed as the heart beat. If there is any change in the pulses then it is noticed as the change in the heart and then the controller will get a disturbed pulse count which indicates the fault or malfunction of the heart. The controller is fixed for a no. of pulses initially. If there is any change in the any of the pulse count then it considers as a malfunction of the heart and then it transmits the pulse count with the patients ID to the doctor in the hospital and at the same to it sends a sms to a fixed number in the microcontroller. This is convenient process to monitor the patients health conditions form any of the distance we present. Since we are using both the networks like Zigbee and GSM this makes the user to communicate for internal system and as well as to the longer distances.
1.3. AIM OF THE PROJECT
The main processes involved in this type of control system are to monitor the patient?s health status. Zigbee is a wireless connection network that is used to connect different devices at a frequency of 2.4GHz.? For medical applications also this Zigbee is widely used. The Zigbee can communicate with the devices of about 1km. The other network is GSM network. This can be operated from any distance to any point of control. The communication is done with the help of local network support. This can get communicated to any part of the world which the network of the local system is applicable. Here we are using for the hospital communication for monitoring the patient.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS
ADVANTAGES:
Zigbee technology enables doctor to monitor the patients conditions even sitting in his room .
Doctor will get call when patients body temperature and heart beat rises so that he can take precautionary .measures even though he will be in remote place.
Patient care takers can monitor the equipment easily.

LIMITATIONS:
Bitter Expensive.
Accumulation of noise with ECG signal.
Communication for longer distance is quite difficult through Zigbee technology
Interference of noise in GSM modem due to high Radio frequency signals.
Accuracy will be less.

FUTURE SCOPE
Monitoring the patient?s condition can be done by using biomedical telemetry method where there is a mobile communication between microcontrollers. The temperature, heart beat and blood pressure are all sensed by using the appropriate sensors which are placed near the patient?s body that is under investigation. The biomedical telemetry system consists of temperature sensor, heart beat sensor, pressure sensor, A/D converter, signal conditioning circuit, microcontroller, data cable, mobile phone, LCD display. The temperature sensor is used to sense the temperature value of the patient?s body.
The sensed output is given to A/D converter where the analog signal is converted to digital signal. The digital output is given to microcontroller. The microcontroller delivers the signal for mobile phone through data cable. Then the signal is transmitted to other mobile through GSM network. The receiver mobile receives the signal and it is given for a PC. The signal from data cable is given to PC and the value gets displayed using monitor. The pressure sensor is used to sense the pressure value of the patient?s body .The sensed output is given to A/D converter where the analog signal is converted to digital signal. The digital output is given to microcontroller.
The microcontroller delivers the signal for mobile phone through data cable. Then the signal is transmitted to other mobile through GSM network. The receiver mobile receives the signal and it is given for a PC. The signal from data cable is given to PC and the value gets displayed using monitor. Heart beat can be sensed by using heart beat sensor which is then given to a signal conditioning circuit. This unit delivers a train of pulses to microcontroller and the value gets displayed using LCD display.

CONCLUSION
We presented the design and implementation of a Remote Patient Monitoring system based on wireless technology using a cellular phone, to send an SMS (Short Message Service) to the medical staff. The proposed system combines two commonly used technologies namely, Global System for Mobile (GSM) and Zigbee technology. This indeed is an easy, practical, inexpensive and yet very effective way for transmitting vital information to the healthcare staff and healthcare providers.
The system monitors patient's health status, such as ECG, heart rate, and temperature. In case, the value for any of these parameters exceeds preset critical values, the position parameters, from the attached GPS module, are transmitted to pre-defined phone number in form of SMS using a GSM module.
All the information obtained from the human body from sensors and ECG filter circuit is then transmitted to the microcontroller system as digital values. The values obtained from like ECG, heart rate and temperature is also displayed on to the attached LCD in alphanumerical form. In the conclusion we consider how this system can be further improved in future, may be by adding new type of sensors as well as using new approaches for the security and triggering alarm.

 

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