Smart Grid

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1.? Introduction
A? smart? grid? delivers? electricity from? suppliers? to consumers using two-way? digital technology? to control? appliances at consumers' homes? to save energy, reduce? cost and increase reliability and? transparency.??? It is capable of assessing its health in real-time, predicting its behavior, anticipatory behavior, adaptation to new environments, handling distributed resources, stochastic demand, and optimal response to the smart appliances. It is a tool that allows electric utilities to focus on evolving true business drivers by enabling cost containment, end-to-end power delivery control, and a more secure infrastructure.
The grid is considered to have observability with nodes data integration and analysis to support advances in system operation and control. This includes power delivery integration and high level utility strategic planning functions.
The existing transmission and distribution systems use techniques and strategies that are old and there is limited use of digital communication and control technology. To achieve improved, reliable and economical power delivery information flow and secure integrated communication is proposed.
The Smart Grid with intelligent functions is expected to provide self-correction, reconfiguration and restoration, and able to handle randomness of loads and market participants in real time, while creating more complex interaction behavior with intelligent devices, communication protocols, standard and smart algorithms to achieve complex interaction with smart communication and transportation systems.


The Smart Grid is planned to have the following key characteristics:

  • Self-healing:? A grid, which is able to rapidly detect, analyze, respond and restore from perturbations.
  • Empower and incorporate the consumer:? The ability to incorporate consumer equipment and behavior in the design and operation of the grid.
  • Tolerant of attack:? A grid that mitigates and stands resilient to physical and cyber security attacks.
  • Provides power quality needed by 21st century users:? A grid that provides a quality of power consistent with consumer and industry needs.
  • Accommodates a wide variety of generation options:? A grid that accommodates a wide variety of local and regional generation technologies (including green power).
  • Fully enables maturing electricity markets:? Allows competitive markets for those who want them.
  • Optimizes assets:? A grid that uses IT and monitoring to continually optimize its capital assets while minimizing operations and maintenance costs.

Overall, the Smart Grid design goals are to provide grid observability; create controllability of assets, enhance power system performance and security; and reduce costs of operations, maintenance, and system planning. Benefits of the Smart Grid with bring forth the following:

  • Improved system performance meters.
  • Better customer satisfaction.
  • Improved ability to supply information for rate cases, visibility of utility operation / asset management
  • Availability of data for strategic planning, as well as better support for digital summary
  • More reliable and economic delivery of power enhanced by information flow and secure communication
  • Life cycle management, cost containment, and end-to-end power delivery is improved in the smart grid design
  • Improved ability to supply accurate information for rate cases- with compounding impact in regulatory utilities
  • Input visibility of utility operation to asset management
Impact access to historical data for strategic planning.

A SMART GRID deliverselectricity from supplier to consumers using two- way digital technology to control appliances at consumers? homes to save energy, reduce cost and increase reliability and transparency. It overlays the electricity distribution grid with an information and net metering system. Power travels from the power plant to your house through an amazing system called the power distribution grid.Such a modernized electricity networks is being promoted by many governments as a way of addressing energy independences, global warming and emergency resilience issues. Smart meters may be part of smart grid, but alone do not constitute a smart grid.

A smart grid includes an intelligent monitoring system that keeps track of all electricity? flowing in the system. It also incorporates the use of superconductive transmission lines for less power loss, as well as the capability of the integrating renewable electricity such as solar and wind. When power is least expensive the user? can allow the smart grid to turn on selected home appliances such as washing machines or factory processes that can run at arbitrary hours. At peak times it could turn off selected appliances to reduce demand.

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