Tsunami Warning System

 Download your Full Reports for Tsunami Warning System

On December 26, 2004, a massive underwater earthquake off the coast of Indonesia's Sumatra Island rattled the Earth in its orbit. The quake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale is the largest one since 1964. Dozens of aftershocks with magnitudes of 5.0 or higher occurred in the following days. But the most powerful and destructive aftermath of this devastating earthquake is the tsunami that it caused. The death toll reached higher than 225,000, and many communities suffered devastating property damage
The devastation of this tsunami overshadowed the devastation of any other tsunami we've seen in recent history, but scientifically, the course of events followed the same basic sequence of a typical tsunami. In this paper, we'll look at what causes tsunamis, the physics that drives them and the effects of a tsunami strike. We will also examine scientists' worldwide efforts to monitor and predict tsunamis with the help of a TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM in order to avoid disasters like the one that occurred in the final days of 2004. This paper also focuses on an improved version of the TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEM called the DART (DEEP OCEAN ASSESMENT AND REPORTING OF TSUNAMIS).

Tsunami Warning System Full Seminar Report and PPT

A Tsunami warning system (TWS) is used to detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and damage. It consists of two equally important components: a network of sensors to detect tsunamis and a communications infrastructure to issue timely alarms to permit evacuation of coastal areas. There are two distinct types of tsunami warning systems: international and regional. When operating, the seismic alerts are used to instigate the watches and warnings. Then, data from observed sea level height (either shore-based tide gauges or DART buoys) are used to verify the existence of a tsunami. Other systems have been proposed to augment the warning procedures. For example, it has been suggested that the duration and frequency content of t-wave energy (which is earthquake energy trapped in the ocean SOFAR channel) is indicative of an earthquake's tsunami potential.
History & Forecasting
The first rudimentary system to alert communities of an impending tsunami was attempted in Hawaii in the 1920s. More advanced systems were developed in the wake of the April 1, 1946 (caused by the 1946 Aleutian Islands earthquake) and May 23, 1960 (caused by the 1960 Valdivia earthquake) tsunamis which caused massive devastation in Hilo, Hawaii. While tsunamis travel at between 500 and 1,000 km/h (around 0.14 and 0.28 km/s) in open water, earthquakes can be detected almost at once as seismic waves travel with a typical speed of 4 km/s (around 14,400 km/h). This gives time for a possible tsunami forecast to be made and warnings to be issued to threatened areas, if warranted. Unfortunately, until a reliable model is able to predict which earthquakes will produce significant tsunamis, this approach will produce many more false alarms than verified warnings.
International warning systems (IWS)
Pacific Ocean
Tsunami warnings for most of the Pacific Ocean are issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), operated by the United States NOAA in Ewa Beach, Hawaii. NOAA's West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska issues warnings for the west coast of North America, including Alaska, Canada, and the western coterminous United States. PTWC was established in 1949, following the 1946 Aleutian Island earthquake and a tsunami that resulted in 165 casualties on Hawaii and in Alaska; WCATWC was founded in 1967. International coordination is achieved through the International Coordination Group for the Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific, established by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.[2]
Indian Ocean (ICG/IOTWS)
After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami which killed almost 230,000 people, a United Nations conference was held in January 2005 in Kobe, Japan, and decided that as an initial step towards an International Early Warning Programme, the UN should establish an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System. This then resulted in a system of warnings in Indonesia.
North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected Seas (ICG/NEAMTWS)
The First United Session of the Inter-governmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System in the North Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected Seas (ICG/NEAMTWS), established by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO Assembly during its 23rd Session in June 2005, through Resolution XXIII.14, took place in Rome on 21 and 22 November 2005.
The Meeting, hosted by the Government of Italy (Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry for Environment and Protection of the Territory), was attended by more than 150 participants from 24 countries, 13 organizations and numerous observers.
A Caribbean-wide tsunami warning system has been planned to be instituted by the year 2010, by member nations representatives who met in Panama City in March 2008. Panama's last major tsunami killed 4,500 people in 1882. Barbados has said it will review or test its Tsunami protocol in February 2010 as a regional pilot.
Regional warning systems
Regional (or local) warning system centres use seismic data about nearby recent earthquakes to determine if there is a possible local threat of a tsunami. Such systems are capable of issuing warnings to the general public (via public address systems and sirens) in less than 15 minutes. Although the epicenter and moment magnitude of an underwater quake and the probable tsunami arrival times can be quickly calculated, it is almost always impossible to know whether underwater ground shifts have occurred which will result in tsunami waves. As a result, false alarms can occur with these systems, but due to the highly localised nature of these extremely quick warnings, disruption is small.
Conveying the warning
Detection and prediction of tsunamis is only half the work of the system. Of equal importance is the ability to warn the populations of the areas that will be affected. All tsunami warning systems feature multiple lines of communications (such as SMS, e-mail, fax, radio, texting and telex, often using hardened dedicated systems) enabling emergency messages to be sent to the emergency services and armed forces, as well to population-alerting systems (e.g. sirens). CWarn is a non-profit making organization that sends free text alerts to members of a pending tsunami by SMS. The information sent to end user is based on their location (latitude and longitude).


 Download your Full Reports for Tsunami Warning System


© 2013 123seminarsonly.com All Rights Reserved.