Underwater Communication

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???? Underwater wireless communication is a flourishing research area in the field of wireless communications. This paper presents the overall framework of the necessity of underwater wireless systems, characteristics of an acoustic channel, hardware and working of acoustic modems, sensor networks and different communication architectures involved in the sensor networks. Applications till date, like oceanographic data collection,AUVs(autonomous underwater vehicles),underwater radio etc.., future challenges like effective transmission of video and audio signals by real time monitoring have been emphasized? with a view to overcome the present limitations.

While wireless communication technology today has become part of our daily life, the idea of wireless undersea communications may still seem far-fetched. However, research has been active for over a decade on designing the methods for wireless information transmission underwater. Human knowledge and understanding of the world?s oceans, which constitute the major part of our planet, rests on our ability to collect information from remote undersea locations.

?The major discoveries of the past decades, such as the remains of Titanic, or the hydro-thermal vents at bottom of deep ocean, were made using cabled submersibles. Although such systems remain indispensable if high-speed communication link is to exists between the remote end and the surface, it is natural to wonder what one could accomplish without the burden (and cost) of heavy cables.

Hence the motivation and interest in wireless underwater communications. Together with sensor technology and vehicular technology, wireless communications will enable new applications ranging from environmental monitoring to gathering of oceanographic data, marine archaeology, and search and rescue missions.

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