Eye movement measurement has long been an area of intense interest for researchers in a multitude of fields ranging from medicine to psychology and from advertising to computing. The design and development of eye movement measurement and tracking systems most frequently arises during the course of inter-disciplinary research projects. Despite the recent technological improvements, eye trackers remain very much a high cost research and academic tool requiring specially trained personnel to set-up and operate the systems.
Eye movements are the most frequent of all human movements. Eye movement research is of great interest in the study of neuroscience. Since eye movement can be controlled to some degree and track by modern technology with great speed and precision , they can now be used as a powerful input device and have many practical applications in human computer interactions. The EOG is one of the very few methods of recording eye movements that does not require a direct attachment to the eye itself. It is now accepted that the generated electrical potential arises due to the permanent potential difference 10 to 30mV that exists between the cornea and ocular fundus. An electrical field is set up in the tissues surrounding the eye and the rotation of the eye causes corresponding rotation of field vector. For this reason, it is possible to detect eye movement with the appropriate placement of electrodes on the skin surrounding the eyes.
Electro-occulography is recording technique that allows the standing potential between the cornea and the posterior pole of the eye tube recorded. Because this biological signal is proportional to the rotational angle of eye this technique permits a wide range of rotational angles to be recorded, allows documenting of eye movements when the eyelids are closed and unable the recording in the dark places. The EOG signal has the high signal to noise (S/N) ratio, therefore no electromagnetic shielding is required. The advantage of EOG eye gaze interface is its simple configuration : in recording, a pair of electrodes is placed on the right and left temples and potential is amplified using the DC or AC amplifier.
Electro-occulography is widely used in ophthalmic research and clinical laboratories because it provides the method for recording with full range of eye movements. Electro-occulograph can be used in ophthalmology for diagnosis and prognosis of several eye ailments.
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