Organizing
Arranging several elements into a purposeful sequential order.
Organization Structure
The set of elements that can be use to
configure an organization.
Basic elements organizing
Job Designing
Grouping Jobs
Reporting Relationships
Distribution of Authority
Coordination
Differentiation
What is ?Designing Jobs??
The process of linking specific tasks to specific jobs and deciding what techniques, equipment, and procedures should be used to perform those tasks
Job Specialization
The degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller.
Adam Smith?s Example of Job Specialization
Making a pin (nail) requires 18 tasks

1 worker doing all 18 tasks might make

20 pins (nails) a day.

20 workers = (20 x 20) = 400 pins
With specialization:
+ & - Job Specialization
Benefits
Proficient
Transfer time
equipment can be more easily developed
Replacement
Limitations
Bore and dissatisfaction
Alternatives to Specialization
Job Rotation
Systematically moving employees from one job to another in an attempt to reduce employee boredom.
Job Enlargement
An increase in the total number of tasks workers perform.
Job Enrichment
Increasing both the number of tasks the worker does and the control the worker has over the job.
Job Characteristics Approach
Skill variety
Task identity
Task significance
The number of tasks a person does in a job.
The extent to which the worker does a complete or identifiable portion of the total job
The perceived importance of the task
Autonomy
Feedback
the degree of control the worker has over how the work is performed
the extent to which the worker knows how well the job is being performed.
Grouping Jobs: Departmentalization
Departmentalization
The process of grouping jobs according to some logical arrangement.
Functional Departmentalization
Put positions into units based on expertise skils and similarity of work .
Product Departmentalization
The grouping of activities around products or product groups.
Customer Departmentalization
Grouping jobs to meet the unique needs of customers.
Location Departmentalization
Other Forms of Departmentalization:
Time
Sequence
Establishing Reporting Relationships
Who report to whom???????
Chain of command
A clear and distinct line of authority among the positions in an organization.
Unity of Command
Each person within an organization must have a clear reporting relationship to one and only one boss.
Scalar Principle
A clear and unbroken line of authority must extend from the bottom to the top of the organization.
Span of Control (SOC)
Number of people who report to a particular manage
Narrow Span of control
Wide span of control
Tall and Flat Organization
Distributing Authority
Authority
Power that has been legitimized by the organization.
Delegation
The process by which managers assign a portion of their total workload to others.
Reasons for Delegation
To enable the manager to get more work done by utilizing the skills and talents of subordinates.
Steps in the Delegation Process
Problems in Delegation
Manager
reluctant to delegate
Trust issue
Subordinate
Reluctant to accept delegation for fear of failure.
Prefers to avoid any risk and responsibility.
Decentralization and Centralization
Centralized
In an organization if all the decision making power and authority is concentrated in top management only we say that the organization is centralized.
Decentralization
If the decision making power and authority is spread over all the levels of mgt including lower level then the organization is decentralized
Coordinating Activities
The process of linking the activities of various departments of organization
Structural Coordination Techniques
The Managerial Hierarchy
Placing one manager in charge of interdependent departments or units.
Rules and Procedures
Routine coordination activities can be handled via rules and procedures
Liaison Roles
A manager coordinates interdependent units by acting as a common point of contact, facilitating the flow of information.
Task Forces
Used with multiple units when coordination is complex, requiring more than one individual and the need for coordination is acute.
Integrating Departments
Permanent organizational units that maintain internal integration and coordination on an ongoing basis.
Electronic Coordination
E-mail, cell phones.
Differentiating Between Positions
Line Positions
Positions in the direct chain of command responsible for the achievement of an organization?s goals.
Staff Positions
Positions intended to provide expertise, advice, and support to line positions.
Administrative Intensity
The degree to which managerial positions are concentrated in staff positions.

 

 


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