Nearly all the conscious behavior of human being is motivated. The internal
needs and drives lead to tensions, which in turn result into actions. The need for food results into hunger and hence a person is motivated to eat.
A manager requires to create and maintain an environment in which individuals work together in groups towards the accomplishment of common objectives. A manager cannot do a job without knowing what motivates people. The building of motivating factors into organizational roles, the staffing of these roles and the entire process of leading people must be built on a knowledge of motivation
. It is necessary to remember that level of motivation varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times. Today in the increasingly competitive environment maintaining a highly motivated workforce is the most challenging task. The art of motivation starts by learning how to influence the behavior of the individual. This understanding helps to achieve both, the individual as well as organizational objectives.
Motivation is a powerful tool in the hands of leaders. It can persuade convince and propel. People to act.
WHAT IS MOTIVATION ?
It is a general tendency to believe that motivation is a personal trait. Some people have it and the others don?t. In practice, some are labeled to be lazy because they do not display an outward sign of motivation. However, individuals differ in their basic motivational drives. It also depends upon their areas of interest. The concept of motivation is situational and its level varies between different individuals and at different times. If you understand what motivates people, you have at your command the most powerful tool for dealing with them.
Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned
by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need.
Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces.
Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.
To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, to obtain feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.
TYPES OF MOTIVATION
(1) Achievement Motivation
It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ?Kaizen? approach of Japanese Management.
(2) Affiliation Motivation
It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation
motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.
(3) Competence Motivation
It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.
(4) Power Motivation
It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization
and are willing to take risks to do so.
(5) Attitude Motivation
Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past.
(6) Incentive Motivation
It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is ?You do this and you get that?, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder.
(7) Fear Motivation
Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.
REQUISITES TO MOTIVATE
? We have to be Motivated to Motivate
? Motivation requires a goal
? Motivation once established, does not last if not repeated
? Motivation requires Recognition
? Participation has motivating effect
? Seeing ourselves progressing Motivates us
? Challenge only motivates if you can win
? Everybody has a motivational fuse i.e. everybody can be motivated
? Group belonging motivates
MOTIVATING DIFFERENT PEOPLE IN DIFFERENT WAYS
Motivation is not only in a single direction i.e. downwards. In the present scenario, where the workforce is more informed, more aware, more educated and more goal oriented, the role of motivation has left the boundries of the hierarchy
of management. Apart from superior motivating a subordinate, encouragement and support to colleague as well as helpful suggestions on the right time, even to the superior, brings about a rapport at various work levels. Besides, where workforce is self motivated, just the acknowledgement
of the same makes people feel important and wanted.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MOTIVATION, SATISFACTION, INSPIRATION AND MANIPULATION
Motivation refers to the drive and efforts to satisfy a want or goal, whereas satisfaction refers to the contentment experienced when a want is satisfied. In contrast, inspiration is bringing about a change in the thinking pattern. On the other hand Manipulation is getting the things done from others in a predetermined manner.