Adaptive Active Phased Array Multifunction Radars

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Over the years radar systems have been changing on account of the requirements caused by

  1. Increase in the number of wanted and unwanted targets
  2. reduction in target size either due to physical size reduction due to the adoption of stealth? measures
  3. the need to detect unwanted targets in even more sever levels of clutter and at longer ranges?????????????
  4. the need to adapt to a greater number of and more sophisticated types of electronic? counter measures??

???????????????? Radar designers addressed these needs by either designing radars to fulfil a specific role, or by providing user selectable roles within a single radar.? This process culminated in the fully adaptive radar, which can automatocally react to the operational enviournment to optimise prformance.

???????????????? ?Conventional radars fall into two categories independent of what functions they perform. The first category has fixed antena with centralised transmitters which produces patterns by reflector or passive array antenas. The beaming being fixed, scanning can only be achieved? by physically moving the antenna.? Typically a surveillence radar will produce a fan shaped beam with a fixed elevation illumination profile, the azimuth scanning being achieved by rotating the antenna. A trackinng radar will have a pencil beam that is used to tranck targets by the use of a mechanical tracking mount.? Because of the limitations impossed on such radars by their design such radars are "single-functioin radars".

The second category of radars is the passive phased array.? These incorporate electronic beam scanning or beam shaping by the use of phase shifters, switching elements or frequency scanning methods. These features enable the radar designer to implement more complex systems having the capability to carry out more than one radar functons.i.e. 'multi function radars'. Generally however, the functions of the radars are pre-programmed and not adaptable as the radar????? enviournment? or the threat changes.

In order to improve the multifunction capability over that of a conventional phased array, in many cases the adaptive actrive phased array radar (AAPAR) is the only practical solution. In the AAPAR, transmiter /receiver modules are mounted at the antenna? face and adaptive beamforming and radar management and control techniques are used.

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