Automatic Railway Gate Controling

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ABSTRACT
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This project work aims at the ?design, development, fabrication ?and ?testing of working model entitled ?Automatic Railway Gate Controller?. It is ?basically related to Radio communication and signalling system. An Automatic ?Railway ?gate controller is unique in which the railway gate is closed and opened or operated by the Train itself by eliminating the chances of human errors.

The largest public sector in India is the Railways. The network of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of Indian Railways covering the length and breath of our country is divided into nine Railway zones for operational convenience. The railway tracks criss-cross the state Highways and of course village road along their own length.? The points or places where the Railway track???? crosses the road are called level crossings.? Level crossings cannot be used simultaneously both by road traffic and trains, as this result in accidents leading to loss of precious lives.

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Aim of this project is to control the unmanned rail gate automatically using embedded platform. Today often we see news papers very often about the railway accidents happening at un- attended railway gates. Present project is designed to avoid such accidents if implemented in spirit. This project is developed in order to help the INDIAN RAILWAYS in making its present working system a better one, by eliminating some of the loopholes existing in it. Based on the responses and reports obtained as a result of the significant development in the working system of INDIAN RAILWAYS,
This project can be further extended to meet the demands according to situation. This can be further implemented to have control room to regulate the working of the system. Thus becomes the user friendliness.

In this project AT89c51 Micro controller Integrated Chip plays the main role. The program for this project is embedded in this Micro controller Integrated Chip and interfaced to all the peripherals. The timer program is inside the Micro controller IC to maintain all the functions as per the scheduled time.? Stepper motors are used for the purpose of gate control interfaced with current drivers chip ULN2003 it?s a 16 pin IC.

Features:

  • There is no time lag to operate the device
  • Accuracy.

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER:
A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor, which combines the processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only specific applications.
ADVANTAGES OF MICROCONTROLLER:
A designer will use a Microcontroller to

  1. Gather input from various sensors
  2. Process this input into a set of actions
  3. Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful
  4. RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC.
  5. Multi machine control is possible simultaneously.
  6. ROM, EPROM, [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage.

Examples:
8051, 89C51 (ATMAL), PIC (Microchip), Motorola (Motorola), ARM Processor, Applications: Cell phones, Computers, Robots, Interfacing to two pc?s.

 

 

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2.2 AT89C51 MICTROCONTROLLER:

Description:
????????? The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4Kbytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device ?is manufactured ?using ?Atmel?s high-density ?nonvolatile ?memory ?technology ?and ?is compatible with the industry-standard ?MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a ?conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit ?CPU? with Flash on a monolithic chip, the? Atmel AT89C51 is a ?powerful ?microcomputer, which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

AT89C51 features:

  • 4Kbytes of Flash memory, 128 bytes of RAM.
  • 32 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters.
  • a five vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port,
  • on - chip oscillator and clock circuitry.
  • In addition, the AT89C51 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes.
  • The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning.
  • The Power-down Mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset.

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