An electric car consists of a battery, an electric motor, and a controller. ?The motor is powered by batteries by using the batteries? electrical energy and converting it to kinetic energy. The controller regulates the energy flow to the electric motor. An electric car stores its energy on board in batteries.? These batteries can be plugged into an electrical outlet or charged by another source such as a gasoline engine, fuel cells or solar power. ?
The two main types of electric cars are: ?all electric? and hybrid. ?All electric? cars run only on batteries that are charged up by an electrical outlet and are only powered by the electric motor.
Hybrid Electric Vehicles are powered by an electric motor and a gasoline engine. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) use three types of drivetrains. The three types are the series drivetrain, the parallel drivetrain, and the series/parallel drivetrain. In the series drivetrain only the electric motor turns the wheels, while the batteries are charged by a gasoline engine. This system will be used in the Chevrolet Volt coming out in 2010. In the parallel drivetrain the gasoline engine and the electric motor combine to generate the power that turns the wheels. Major cars that use the parallel drivetrain are the Honda Civic, Accord and Insight. The series/parallel drivetrain uses the series type at lower speeds and the parallel type at higher speeds.
?All electric? cars are powered only by the electric motor. Unlike gasoline engines, an electric motor has only one rotating element. This is a power train of gears, shafts and motions that transit motion from the motor to the wheels. This simplicity in electric cars is an advantage because there is less to break and need to be repaired. Most electric cars don?t have transmissions, instead the flow of electricity controls the motor. In order to go in reverse, the flow of electricity through the motor is reversed, which changes the rotation of the motor. ?
Electric Car Considerations
There is no doubt that electric cars can be built and sold by major car companies. The question is can they be manufactured and sold for profit. Two other considerations with electric cars are their effect on the environment and the cost of creating the infrastructure needed to produce, repair and fuel electric cars.
The electric car has always been promoted because of its positive effects environmentally. The most popular advantage is that ?all-electric? cars produce no roadside emissions. Other advantages are that electric cars produce no smog, smoke, odor or noise. All electric cars reduce our dependence on and use of foreign oil. This is because ?all electric? cars require no gasoline or oil to operate. Hybrids also raise mileage per gallon compared to gasoline cars. Therefore, even hybrids can significantly reduce our use of foreign oil and the conflict surrounding it. Another advantage is that the only solid waste is the batteries. Also lead-acid batteries are 97% recyclable. Electric cars will continue to have a positive effect on our environment as they reduce and eliminate our roadside emissions.
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