The racing teams have to create cars that are flexible enough to run under all conditions. Every one of the 22 Formula One cars on the grid is dependent upon sophisticated mechanics and electronics to govern its many complex operational systems.
The engineering of materials, cooling system, aerodynamics, heat insulation, and the high temperature structural stiffness of Formula 1 components is leading-edge technology.
There is electronics involved for the engine management, the data acquisition from the car to the pit for the regulation of , brake and engine temperature, suspension movements, ride height, pedal movements and g-force.
Car racing is one of the most technologically advanced sports in the world today. Race Cars are the most sophisticated vehicles that we see in common use. It features exotic, high-speed, open-wheel cars racing all around the world. The racing teams have to create cars that are flexible enough to run under all conditions. This level of diversity makes a season of F1 car racing incredibly exciting. The teams have to completely revise the aerodynamic package, the suspension settings, and lots of other parameters on their cars for each race, and the drivers have to be extremely agile to handle all of the different conditions they face. Their carbon fiber bodies, incredible engines, advanced aerodynamics and intelligent electronics make each car a high-speed research lab. A F1 Car runs at speeds up to 240 mph, the driver experiences G-forces and copes with incoming data so quickly that it makes Car driving one of the most demanding professions in the sporting world. F1 car is an amazing machine that pushes the physical limitations of automotive engineering. On the track, the driver shows off his professional skills by directing around an oval track at speeds
2. Different parts of F1 car
2.1 The Chasis
Modern f1 Cars are defined by their chassis. All f1 Cars share the following characteristics:
1. They are single-seat cars.
2. They have an open cockpit.
3. They have open wheels ? there are no fenders covering
4. They have wings at the front and rear of the car to
5. They position the engine behind the the driver
The tub must be able to withstand the huge forces produced by the high cornering speeds, bumps and aerodynamic loads imposed on the car. This chassis model is covered in carbon fibre to create a mould from which the actual chassis can be made. Once produced the mould is smoothed down and covered in release agent so the carbon-fibre tub can be easily removed after manufacture
The cockpit of a modern F1 racer is a very sparse environment. The driver must be comfortable enough to concentrate on driving while being strapped tight into his seat, experiencing G-forces of up to 5G under harsh braking and 4G in fast corners. Every possible button and switch must be close at hand as the driver has limited movement due to tightness of the seat belts. The cockpit is also very cramped, and drivers often wear knee pads to prevent bruising. The car designers are forever trying to lower the centre of gravity of the car, and as each car has a mass of 600 Kg, with the driver's being roughly 70 Kg, he is an important factor in weight distribution. This often means that the drivers are almost lying down in their driving position.
Fig: Inner view of cockpit
One of the most important features of a formula1 Car is its aerodynamics package. The most obvious manifestations of the package are the front and rear wings, but there are a number of other features that perform different functions. A formula 1 Car uses air in three different ways introduction of wings. Formula One team began to experiment with crude aerodynamic devices to help push the tires into the track.
Fig: direction of wind during race
3.1 Wind theory
The wings on an F1 car use the same principle as those found on a common aircraft, although while the aircraft wings are designed to produce lift, wings on an F1 car are placed 'upside down', producing downforce, pushing the car onto the track. The basic way that an aircraft wing works is by having the upper surface a different shape to the lower. This difference causes the air to flow quicker over the top surface than the bottom, causing a difference in air pressure between the two surfaces. The air on the upper surface will be at a lower pressure than the air below the wing, resulting in a force pushing the wing upwards. This force is called lift. On a racing car, the wing is shaped so the low pressure area is under the wing, causing a force to push the wing downwards. This force is called downforce.
As air flows over the wing, it is disturbed by the shape, causing what is known as form or pressure drag. Although this force is usually less than the lift or downforce, it can seriously limit top speed and causes the engine to use more fuel to get the car through the air. Drag is a very important factor on an F1 car, with all parts exposed to the air flow being streamlined in some way. The suspension arms are a good example, as they are often made in a shape of a wing, although the upper surface is identical to the lower surface. This is done to reduce the drag on the suspension arms as the car travels through the air at high speed.
3.2 Rear wing
As more wing angle creates more downforce, more drag is produced, reducing the top speed of the car. The rear wing is made up of two sets of aerofoil connected to each other by the wing endplates. The top aerofoil top provides most of the downforce and is the one that is varied the most from track to track. It is now made up of a maximum of three elements due to the new regulations. The lower aerofoil is smaller and is made up of just one element. As well as creating downforce itself, the low pressure region immediately below the wing helps suck air through the diffuser, gaining more downforce under the car. The endplates connect the two wings and prevent air from spilling over the sides of the wings, maximizing the high pressure zone above the wing, creating maximum downforce.
Fig:- rear wing
3.3 Front wing
Wing flap on either side of the nose cone is asymmetrical. It reduces in height nearer to the nose cone as this allows air to flow into the radiators and to the under floor aerodynamic aids. If the wing flap maintained its height right to the nose cone, the radiators would receive less air flow and therefore the engine temperature would rise. The asymmetrical shape also allows a better airflow to the under floor and the diffuser, increasing downforce. The wing main plane is often raised slightly in the centre, this again allows a slightly better airflow to the under floor aerodynamics, but it also reduces the wing's ride height sensitivity. A wing's height off the ground is very critical, and this slight raise in the centre of the main plane makes react it more subtlety to changes in ride height. The new- regulations state that the outer thirds of the front wing must be raised by 50mm, reducing downforce. Some teams have lowered the central section to try to get some extra front downforce, at the compromise of reducing the quality of the airflow to the underbody aerodynamics
They are mounted between the front wheels and the side pods, but can be situated in the suspension, behind the front wheels. Their main purpose is to smooth the turbulent airflow coming from the front wheels, and direct some of this flow into the radiators, and the rest around the side of the side pods.
They have become much more three dimensional in their design, and feature contours to direct the airflow in different directions. Although the bargeboards help tidy the airflow around the side pods, they may also reduce the volume of air entering the radiators, so reaching a compromise between downforce and cooling is important
Invisible to the spectator other than during some kind of major accident, the diffuser is the most important area of aerodynamic consideration. This is the underside of the car behind the rear axle line. Here, the floor sweeps up towards the rear of the car, creating a larger area of the air flowing under the car to fill. This creates a suction effect on the rear of the car and so pulls the car down onto the track.
4. The Brakes
F1 cars use disc brakes like most road cars, but these brakes are designed to work at 750 degrees C and are discarded after each race. The driver needs the car to be stable under heavy braking, and is able to adjust the balance between front and rear braking force from a dial in the cockpit. The brakes are usually set-up with 60% of the braking force to the front, 40% to the rear. This is because as the driver hits the brakes, the whole weight of the car is shifted towards the front, and the rear seems to get lighter. If the braking force was kept at 50% front and rear, the rear brakes would lock up as there would be less force pushing the rear tyres onto the track under heavy braking.
These master cylinders contain the brake fluid for both the front and rear brakes. The front and rear systems are connected separately so if one circuit would fail,other circuit takes incharge. The coefficient of friction between the pads and the discs can be as much as 0.6 when the brakes are up to temperature. You can often see the brake discs glowing during a race; this is due to the high temperatures in the disc, with the normal operating temperature between 400-800 degrees Celsius.
5.Difference between road car and F1 car
1.Exotic materials such as ceramics are employed to reduce the weight and strength of the engine of F1 cars
2. F1 engines are designed to rev much higher than road units. Having double the revs doubles the power output
3. The inside of fuel tank is very complex and contains various section to stop the fuel sloshing around, and there are up to three pumps sucking out the fuel so to get every last drop.
4. They are multi-plate designs that are designed to give enhanced engine pick-up and the lightweight designs mean that they have low inertia, allowing faster gear changes.
5. The tyres are filled with a special nitrogen rich, moisture free gas to make sure the pressure will not alter depending on where it was inflated.
6. Modern engines have a mass less than 100 kilograms and are deigned to be as low as possible to reduce the overall centre of gravity of the car
7. Exhausts are important to remove the waste gases from the engine, but they also play a part in determining the actual power of the engine. Due to the complicated harmonics within the engine, exhaust length can directly alter the power characteristics as pressure waves flow through the exhaust and back to the engine
8. The engine is linked directly to the clutch, fixed between the engine and gearbox. The clutch is electro-hydraulically operated and can weigh as little as 1.5 kg.
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