Modern Trends In Automobile

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INTRODUCTION
The word automobile is made up of two words I,e.auto and mobile. Auto is self propelled and mobile is vechicles and meaning of these two words is ?self propelled vechile?.
Now a days the Indian automobile market in world is in second rank.
First the technology gap are being briged not only between India and world but also the present and future. Almost every player is introducing new engines which are smaller but powerful,lighyer but efficient.
Today, the modern global automotive industry encompasses the principal manufacturers, General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, and DaimlerChrylser, all of which operate in a global competitive marketplace. It is suggested that the globalization of the automotive industry, has greatly accelerated during the last half of the 1990's due to the construction of important overseas facilities and establishment of mergers between giant multinational automakers.
Increasing global trade has enabled the growth in world commercial distribution systems, which has also expanded global competition amongst the automobile manufacturers. Japanese automakers in particular, have instituted innovative production methods by modifying the U.S. manufacturing model, as well as adapting and utilizing technology to enhance production and increase product competition.

FUTURE OF AUTOMATION ? TRENDS, PREDICTIONS
The Future of Industrial Automation ? Because of the relatively small production volumes and huge varieties of applications, industrial automation typically utilizes new technologies developed in other markets. Automation companies tend to customize products for specific applications and requirements. So the innovation comes from targeted applications, rather than any hot, new technology.
The Future of Automation ? Advances in computer and automated systems technology have impacted the entire manufacturing enterprise. CASA/SME developed and uses the Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel as a framework for understanding the different elements and relationships of the manufacturing enterprise. Examples of automation technology can easily be found that impact each area of the wheel, including Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Workflow Management, and Knowledge-Based Design, to name a few.
Avoid Disasters for Automation?s Future: Could this Happen to You? ? Past analysis has attributed so many aircraft accidents to human error. Yet at a closer look, we could trace quite a few back to design issues. The Airbus philosophy was to give the computer final authority when there was a discrepancy with the pilot. Although there could be a good reason for this, we aren?t at the point where we can build software to account for every possible condition. Trusting software above human intelligence and flexibility may be a mistake. At least three other Airbus accidents resulted in hundreds of deaths due to similar computer-versus-pilot control issues.
Are all operating parameters documented and accounted for in your design? Might the safety requirements differ during different plant operating phases, such as start-up, operation, maintenance, and shutdown? Have you considered and reviewed factors like these during your hazard analyses? Make sure you account for the impact of spurious sensor signals in the rest of the system design and operations
Future Automation Flat Screen Lifts ? The Future Automation Inverted Plasma lift allows a plasma screen to be stored in a ceiling. Press the remote control and the plasma will drop in to view. The mechanism also opens a trap door in the ceiling before lowering the plasma. A matching piece of ceiling above the plasma then fills the opening in the top of the cabinet when the plasma is down
A Model for Types and Levels of Human Interaction with Automation ? Here you find the outline of a model for types and levels of automation that provides a framework and an objective basis for deciding which system functions should be automated and to what extent. Appropriate selection is important because automation does not merely supplant but changes human activity and can impose new coordination demands on the human operator. We propose that automation can be applied to four broad classes of functions: 1) information acquisition; 2) information analysis; 3) decision and action selection; and 4) action implementation
The Hottest Trends in Automation & Technology ? Automation and technology systems are exerting more influence on the way businesses run. And as automated systems and technologies get more ubiquitous and powerful, they are also becoming more invisible, with many imbedded intelligent devices undetectable to passersby.CAD/CAM software is improving its process planning capabilities, which ?involves finding the right tool to do the right job
Modern Trends in Industrial Automation, Process Control and Robotics? Globalization, growing Technology and their development increasingly influence Automation in industry. And, it plays an important role in the global economy and in our daily lives. The most effective and visible part of modern Industrial automation is the industrial robotics. Fully automated process control Robots have contributed greatly to improve the productivity of virtually all manufacturing industries throughout the world. And, almost all the process monitoring systems installed as a part of plant or production process are basically Digital Control Systems DCS connected by digital networks.
Future Trends in Process Automation ? The importance of automation in the process industries has increased dramatically in recent years. In the highly industrialized countries, process automation serves to enhance product quality, master the whole range of products, improve process safety and plant availability, and efficiently utilize resources and lower emissions. In the rapidly developing countries, mass production is the main motivation for applying process automation. The greatest demand for process automation is in the chemical industry, power generating industry, and petrochemical industry; the fastest growing demand for hardware, standard software and services of process automation is in the pharmaceutical industry. The importance of automation technology continues to increase in the process industries.

 MODERN TRENDS IN AUTOMOBILE

1. AUTOMOBILES, FUEL AND CO2 IN A LONGER TERM PERSPECTIVE

Energy used and travel for transport purpose in wealthy countries is dominated by automobiles.while fuel economy improvement and some slowing of the risein ownership and use of automobile has lower the growth fuel use , these vehicles are account roufly for 9% of total energy used in oecd countries. Their share in total energy use in developing countries is smaller, but rising rapidly (2). Since most all fuel is from oil products or natural gas, automobiles also account for a significant amount of global release of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas associated with climate change. Hence the automobile and its energy use is a central focus of energy and environmental authorities in almost every country.
This paper focuses on automobile fuel economy, defined as fuel use per traveled of automobiles and household light trucks. By paying some attention to car ownership and use, as well as new vehicle characteristics like weight, power, and fuel, policy makers gain of understanding of what is causing total fuel use to rise, and what components of that rise might be changing towards restraint of fuel use.
This work updates a series of papers by Schipper and co-workers. Schipper et al. (3,4) set out some of the difficulties facing development of data and subsequent analysis of the components of automobile fuel use, particularly in countries like the United States, where actual fuel use is not surveyed and vehicle usage only inferred from infrequent travel surveys.

2. ON ROAD FUEL ECONOMY - APPROACH

We have updated the figures for on-road fuel economy from previous work. While the national data sources are similar those used previously (see Appendix), those from France, UK, and Japan have more details and expanded coverage than previously. As we shall argue, understanding on-road fuel economy (and consequent CO2 emissions) is critical for both interpreting how changing fuel prices and other conditions have changed vehicle use and vehicle purchases, and for estimating the impacts of future policies and technologies Whatever the tested or hoped-for fuel economy and emissions were, the atmosphere sees the real emissions.
National authorities have three approaches to estimating fuel economy and vehicle usage. The most accurate fields surveys of thousands of drivers to record annual fuel use and annual vehicles (Australia, Canada, France, Netherlands until 1998, the US in the early 1980s). Some countries survey partsof this couplet, Sweden for vehicle use for example. As a variant, it is possible to derive annual vehicle use from national travel surveys if these represent all seasons and days of the week. It is also possible to estimate fuel use from household budget surveys if respondents also supply average prices of fuel they paid. These approaches are bottom-up.

3. RESULTS FOR ON ROAD FUEL ECONOMY

Figure 1 shows on-road fuel economy for six countries: US, Japan, UK, France, Germany, and Italy, with Germany representing ?western? Germany before 1995 and all Germany from 1991, leaving four overlapping years. Diesel and LPG are included at gasoline equivalents defined above.

4. NEW CAR FUEL ECONOMY

New car fuel economy, as measured by tests and weighted by sales, is an important indicator of how on-road fuel economy will behave as the fleet is renewed. But a cautionary note is important. Ref. (5) and references therein have emphasized the enormous uncertainties in interpreting sales-weighted test values of vehicles. While such indicators are extremely important in determining the overall impact of technology and
consumer choice, they are very difficult to translate into on-road values that can be matched derived from bottom ?up surveys or top-down analysis applied to the entire stock. Ref. (18) and other US
EPA sources make some estimates of the approximate translation of CAF? test values of each model year EPA sources make some estimates of the approximate translation of CAF? test values of each model year into on-road that are remarkably realistic. For the 1996-2005 period, for example, (18) estimated on road MPG of the combined new car and light truck sales at 21.3+-0.2 MPG, remarkably close to the estimate that as not fluctuated very much. Were the ?real values? for these cars that would be measured by
surveys much different, the on road estimates would not have been so flat.

FIGURE 2 New vehicle sales-weighted fuel economy gasoline equivalents for each year shown, using each country/region?s testing procedures, from each country?s official publications.
With this in mind, Figure 2 shows US, Japan, and a number of European Country averages for new vehicle fuel economy. For the US, the EPA light truck average is counted with cars, using 80% of the light truck sales as indicative of how many should be averaged with cars sold to give a combined value. Japanese values are chained from the 15-mode (and earlier 10mode) tests reported by ( 21). European values are given as weighted averages provided by EU (22) and before then the European Automakers Association (ACEA) as tabulated by the European Council of Ministers of Transport (S. Perkins, ECMT/OECD, priv., comm. Figure 3 then shows these values indexed to their 1995 values, the year from which EU authorities tabulated figures to gauge the progress of their voluntary agreement on lower CO2 emissions/fuel economy. Indexing eliminates misleading comparisons of countries with different test procedures. As noted above
diesel is counted at its energy equivalent, which gives somewhat different values for France, Italy .
FIGURE 3 Long term trends in new car sales-weighted fuel economy indexed to 1995. Source: Official national sources, EU
What is clear from either portrayal is that there have been three periods?the 1970s and early 1980s which saw a dramatic decline in new vehicle fuel intensity in the US and (from 1975/6, when data are available), more modest but still substantial declines in Japan and EU. In the mid 1980s to mid 1990s, EU new vehicle fuel intensities were stagnant while those in Japan and the US rose as SUVs in the US and larger cars in Japan became increasingly more important. After 1995, values in Japan and EU headed down again presumably as voluntary agreements came under discussion, while the US average fluctuated. While the E values through 2005, approximately 165 gm/km of CO2 in absolute terms, fall short of a path to the ultimate goal (140 gm/km) the improvements are still in stark contrast to developments in the US, where, ironically, the relative changes in fuel prices from higher crude prices have been much larger because so little of the price is taxation.

5. IMPACT OF DIESELS ? AMBIGUOUS
Shifting from gasoline to diesel should save fuel and reduce CO2 emissions as well, goes the Brussels. In theory diesels are much more efficient, as matched pair analysis in Schipper et al 2002 showed.
But the same analysis questioned the ultimate role of shifting to diesel if the goal is less fuel use or carbon emissions than otherwise.
The analysis of data in the 2002 study was reviewed briefly and the same important surprises still hold. Recall that when account is taken of the greater energy density of diesel and the greater CO2 released per unit of energy in diesel fuel, diesel fuel economy values have to be increased by 12% in energy terms or
18% in CO2 terms before they can be compared with gasoline. This step cuts the apparent advantage 

6. THE RACE FOR WEIGHT, POWER, AND SPEED

Throughout this report we have avoided using the term ?efficiency? for the indicators we have presented. The reason is clear ? real fuel efficiency, if expressed as energy required to move a given mass a given distanceor the energy required to provide a given level of power to an engine, or to extract a given amount of power from a given volume has risen markedly in the US and Europe. In simple terms, these efficiency improvements have more or less countered increased weight and power (as well as extras) in overwhelmed them in one period in Japan, but only taken back part of the improvements in true efficiency in Europe.
FIGURE 5 New car engine power (diesel and gasoline averaged).
Figure 4 shows new vehicle weight, Figure 5 power in the US and selected European countries over time (7,17). The European countries bracket the averages for years where all countries? data are available. Swedes buy the largest cars, Italians the smallest in Europe. These figures have been creeping up in both the US and Europe. In Japan, however, an indicator of a possible trend break trend is the percentage of mini-cars in overall new car purchases, up from the teens in the 1980s, the 20s in the 1990s, and the 30s after 2000
(21). This represents a break in trends, motivated as much by the lack of space for parking and narrow streets .
FIGURE 7 Fuel consumption to power ratio for new cars
When we divide fuel economy by weight or by power, we obtain indicators of ?efficiency? in the narrow sense (Figs 6 and 7). The first reveals a big drop in fuel use required to move a vehicle. Since power to weight ratios increases in the US and Europe, this means acceleration and top speed have both increased. That is, the lower fuel-use to weight ratio signals greater efficiency, not declining performance, power/weight is up in all countries. The lower fuel use to power ratio says the engine itself is more efficient, providing potentially more power for a given average fuel consumption. In short efficiency has fed power .

7. DRIVING FORCES

The foregoing suggests that short of a low-carbon fuel that can be produce at a level of 20 million barrels per day for IEA countries, serious oil saving or reduction in GHG emissions ? say bringing automobiles back to their 1990 levels of emissions or fuel use --- cannot occur without both reductions in vehicle use and an end to the upward spiral of weight and power. What could drive this change?

8. CHANGING THE TRENDS?

Johansson and Schipper?s (8) findings suggest economic forces ? fuel prices ? are a important determinant fuel use for cars. In the US, at least, the reaction to higher prices has been small (26,20). Yet comparing both new vehicle fuel economy and changes in the stock among the US, EU and Japan since 2000 show that improvements in the later two but not in the first. This occurred even though the relative price changes in the US were larger since the price of crude and refining represents a much larger share to consumers than US were larger since the price of crude and refining represents a much larger share to consumers than Japan and Europe, where taxes are 2-3 times higher. From this comparison it is difficult not to conclude that the Voluntary agreements in both regions affected new vehicle fuel economy.
The issue remains: what will change the car buying preferences of Americans? In 2005 and 2006 the share of SUVs in the total number of light duty vehicles sold fell slightly, but average weight, engine size and horsepower of the combined fleet still increased and the stalemate of technology and car remained. In the EU, by contrast, efficiency factors improved more than car power or weight (EU 2006 leading to a real improvement in both new vehicle and fleet, on-road fuel intensity. In Japan the arrest increased car power and size and technology together led to fuel economy improvements.

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