Monorail

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Considering the increase in population, increased travel demand and narrow road networks running through congested structures, there is a need of a system which will occupy less space as well as reduce travel time.
With the objective, to support public rapid transit system such as suburban rail system and metro rail system and where public rapid transit system is not available or impossible to provide such system and where widening of roads is not possible due to structures on either sides, Mono Rail system is proposed to be implemented by MMRDA/GOM.

 

Salient features of Monorail system:

 

  1. In Monorail System train runs on a narrow Guideway Beam, wheels of which are gripped laterally on either side of the beam.
  2. Monorail is a Light Weight System and its cost of execution is less compared to heavy rail systems and it takes approximately 1.5 to 2 years for execution.
  3. Mono rail System requires 1.00 m wide space (Column Size 0.8 m X 1.5 m) the space of a footpath or a divider and it rests on a single pillar of height 6.5 m without disturbing the existing traffic.
  4. Capacity of 4 cars Monorail System is 8000 to 12000 PHPD.
  5. Monorail System can achieve ? 6 % gradient and turning radius upto 50 m. 
  6. As compared to other systems Monorail produces less noise and is eco-friendly and hence easily acceptable in dense residential locale.
  7. Monorail System is in use in Tokyo (Japan) from 1963, in Kuala-Lumpur (Malaysia) for last 5 years and in china for last 3 years.
  8. Monorail System is Safe and reliable system.

 

MMRDA proposes to implement a proven and established Monorail System in various parts of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). It is proposed to initially take up implementation of about 20 kms Monorail System from Sant Gadge Maharaj Chowk ? Wadala ? Chembur station as a Pilot Project. Completion period of the full project is 30 months.

A monorail is a rail-based transportation system based on a single rail, which acts as its sole support and its guideway. The term is also used variously to describe the beam of the system, or the vehicles traveling on such a beam or track. The primary advantage of monorails over conventional rail systems is that they require minimal space, both horizontally and vertically. Monorail vehicles are wider than the beam, and monorail systems are commonly elevated, requiring only a minimal footprint for support pillars. A monorail track is usually less expensive to build than a comparable elevated conventional rail line of equal capacity. Due to a smaller footprint they are seen as more attractive than conventional elevated rail lines and block only a minimal amount of sky. Monorail is, by design, a grade-separated system. They do not interfere with existing transport modes. They are quieter, as modern monorails use rubber wheels on a concrete track. Modern monorails depend on a large solid beam as the vehicles' running surface. There are a number of competing designs divided into two broad classes, straddle-beam and suspended monorails.

Monorail Technology:-
??????????????????????? Mono' is the Greek numeral prefix for one. 'Rail' indicates the type of track structure utilized. A single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles. In most cases rail is elevated, but monorails can also run at grade, below grade or in subway tunnels. Vehicles are either suspended from or straddle a narrow guide way. Monorail vehicles are wider than the guide way that supports them.
The primary advantage of monorails over conventional rail systems is that they require minimal space, both horizontally and

 

vertically. Monorail vehicles are wider than the beam, and monorail systems are commonly elevated, requiring only a minimal footprint for support pillars.
A monorail track is usually less expensive to build than a comparable elevated conventional rail line of equal capacity. Due to a smaller footprint they are seen as more attractive than conventional elevated rail lines and block only a minimal amount of sky.
Monorail is, by design, a grade-separated system. They do not interfere with existing transport modes.They are quieter, as modern monorails use rubber wheels on a concrete track. Modern monorails depend on a large solid beam as the vehicles' running surface. There are number of competing designs divided into two broad classes, straddle-beam and suspended monorails.

Types of monorail:-
1)Suspended type monorail
2) Straddle-beam monorail
History:-

  1. 1825 - Cheshunt Railway:-

 The first passenger carrying monorail celebrated a grand opening June 25th, 1825. It had a one-horse power engine...literally. Based on a 1821 patent by Henry Robinson Palmer, the Cheshunt Railway was actually built to carry bricks, but made monorail history by carrying passengers at its opening.

2)1876 - Philadelphia Centennial
General Le-Roy Stone's steam driven monorail was first demonstrated at the United States Centennial Exposition in 1876. The ornately designed double-decker vehicle had two main wheels, the rear one driven by a rotary steam engine.

 

 

Then implementation in the monorail had done year by year.
Monorail Types :-
? ? Monorail (Schwebebahn)

The first generally recognized monorail was the Schwebebahn (?swaying railroad?) in Wuppertal, Germany. It is the only true ?mono-rail.? A single steel rail is suspended from an elevated structure along which a single rail runs. In this instance, the vehicle weight is both supported by the rail and guided by it. The position of the vehicle in respect to the rail is unlike traditional dual-rail systems but the basic technology by which the vehicle operates is no different from that of a railroad except that the wheels are double-flanged.


Figure 1.1-- Schwebebahn in Wuppertal, Germany (1901) Source: Alweg Archives
?
? Suspended Monorail (Safege Type)

Modern versions of the Schwebebahn look similar in that the monorail is suspended from above. However, instead of using a single rail for support and guidance, the single rail is replaced by a hollowed-out concrete or steel beam, and rubber tires are used instead of metal wheels. Although this is the most common configuration, numerous
combinations of steel or concrete running surfaces and rubber tires or steel wheels?both singly and doubly flanged have been proposed.


Figure 1.2--Chiba, Japan ?Townliner????????????????????????????????????????????????? Suspended Monorail. Source: The Monorail Society

Three types of hanging monorail guideway columns...

See text for picture information.

T type ????????????????gate type ????????racket type ??????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????????????????????

 

 

??? ? Straddle Monorail

The straddle monorail is by far the most common monorail type that has been put into operation. It is visually probably the most pleasing type and fits into urban environments better than suspended monorails which normally need to be taller to allow for the necessary vehicular clearance under the train. The straddle or sometimes ?Pendulum? monorail is composed of a train running on a concrete or steel guideway. The train?s load bearing tires run on top of the guideway beam while the guidance tires run along the two sides of the said beam. Proposals for high speed straddle monorails that use the straddle principle use slightly different configurations but the principle is roughly the same.

Seattle monorail as seen from station platform.
Figure 1.3--Seattle Alweg Monorail

Seattle's "Alweg" trains are 122' (37.2m) long, 10'3" (3.1m) wide, and 14' (4.27m) high. Each train can seat 124 passengers and can carry 326 standing passengers for a total of 450 passengers.
??????????????? ? Cantilevered Monorail

The cantilevered or side-straddle monorail is similar in appearance and operation to the straddle monorail. However, trains going in opposite directions can share a single (but rather large) beam since cantilevered monorails are balanced by wheels on surfaces found on the sides of beam. While several companies promote such monorails, they have not seen any applications as of yet.

 


Figure 1.4--Owen Transit cantilevered monorail. Source: The Monorail Society

Technical Specification:-
Grades
Rubber-tired monorails are typically designed to cope with 6% grade.
Design Requirements:-

All three track designs include reasonable car, wind, earthquake, braking and acceleration , centrifugal, dead.,
collision , and installation loads . Designs also consider tensile, deformation and temperature stresses? as well as track
deflection . Specifications of the Specific Railway Engineering
Association
STATIONS:-
Monorail stations for above types can be located at terminal areas such as city centers or airports? and at intermediate
points such as bus terminals or shopping centers .They can be above or below ground, in the center or along the side of
a street.
Power
Almost all modern monorails are powered by electric motors fed by dual third rails, contact wires or electrified channels attached to or enclosed in their guidance beams. However, diesel-powered monorail systems also exist.Historically, some systems, such as the Lartigue Monorail, used steam locomotives.

 

? Maglev Monorails

Most maglev (short for ?magnetic levitation?) trains are essentially variations on the straddle monorail. Instead of on-board motors, the interaction of magnets on the vehicle and on the track moves the vehicle forward, while the vehicle itself is slightly levitated by other magnets. While maglev is an interesting technology, its complexity suggests that it is best suited to intercity rather than intra-city installations, placing it beyond the scope of this study. In addition, maglev monorail?s dramatically different operating principles compared with other monorail types suggest that it serves little purpose to analyze maglev alongside more established monorails.
Maglev technology uses powerful electromagnets so that the transports float along the track on a cushion of air. This reduces friction,gives a very smooth quality of ride & makes such vehicle relatively quiet.Magnetics also used for propulsion & braking.

 

Figure 1.5--The Transrapid system (Right) and the Maglift system (Left), two of several levitating monorails. Source: Transrapid/Maglift.
Types of maglev technology:-

  1. electromagnetic suspension (EMS), electronically controlled electromagnets in the train attract it to a magnetically conductive (usually steel) track.

Magnetic fields inside and outside the vehicle are less than EDS; proven, commercially available technology that can attain very high speeds (500 km/h (310 mph)); no wheels or secondary propulsion system needed.

  1. Electrodynamic suspension (EDS) uses superconducting electromagnets or strong permanent magnets which create a magnetic field that induces currents in nearby metallic conductors when there is relative movement which pushes and pulls the train towards the designed levitation position on the guide way.

Onboard magnets and large margin between rail and train enable highest recorded train speeds (581 km/h (361 mph)) and heavy load capacity; has demonstrated (December 2005) successful operations using high-temperature superconductors in its onboard magnets, cooled with inexpensive liquid nitrogen.

Fig:-? SCMaglev EDS suspension is due to ?????the magnetic fields induced either side of the vehicle by the passage of the vehicle's superconducting magnets.


Fig:-EDS Maglev propulsion via propulsion coils

Monorail ?Switch Arrangement:-



Fig :- Switches in the Osaka Monorail Maintenance facility

How Environment Friendly ?
1)green, Green, GREEN!

In 2007, the Las Vegas Monorail aided in the annual removal of an estimated 3.2 million vehicle miles from Southern Nevada?s major roadways and reduced emissions by more than 58 tons of carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) over the course of the year. Multiply that by many monorails and you can imagine the positive results.

2)Hide-a-Station

Station architecture can be easily designed to match the surrounding environment. This is the Sydney Monorail City Centre Station, hidden inside a downtown shopping center. The quiet sound of monorail allows unlimited possibilities for station locations. Stations can be built to any architectural style to blend with the area.

3)Hide-a-Track

This is the interior of the Oasis Shopping Centre in Broadbeach, Australia. The skylighted multi-story hall looks typical at first glance. The architect has cleverly blended a monorail track into the top level of the center. Von Roll trains glide through so quietly that shopping patrons often don't even notice their presence.
4)Multiple-Use Pylons
This is another view of the Oasis Shopping Centre Monorail in Australia.

Pylons for the monorail track are also important structural elements of the building. This kind of blending of function is easily accomplished because monorail supports can vary greatly in design.

 

5)Greenery Along Route

The alignment space needed for monorail is small but is big enough for landscaping. Shown here is some of the lush landscaping that enhances the route of the Kitakyushu City Monorail in Japan. You can't plant this much vegetation on a street level light rail route without gobbling up more traffic lanes.
Aesthetics:-


The monorail guideway can be constructed to be an enhancement rather than a detriment to the environment. Above is the graceful arched guideway of the Walt Disney World Monorail System. The beam is only 26" wide. Note the small shadow. We feel that aesthetics are important to many people, so we have created a special page devoted to them.

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Other Parameter:-

Construction:-


Simply put...dig a hole, drop in a pre-built support pylon, truck in the track which was manufactured offsite, lift into place! Monorail beamway can be installed far faster than the alternatives. This is a Las Vegas Monorail beam being put into place. From truck bed to pylons was a matter of a few minutes. The entire system took only seven months to construct. No other fixed rail can be installed as quickly and as disruption-free.

Cost:-
While capital costs can be as much as or more than light rail, monorail can turn a profit once built. The Tokyo Monorail (above) is operated by a private business and turns a profit each year. This is unheard of with conventional rail or bus systems. The Seattle Monorail also turns a profit each year.

 Efficiency:-
Monorails regularly operate at an amazing 99.9% reliability. No other form of transit can touch that number. The rubber tires get little wear running on smooth guideways. Typically, each load tire gets over 100,000 miles of travel before being replaced. Walt Disney World has a total of 12 trains and during peak seasons at least 10 are on the beamway serving passengers 17 hours a day. There are even times when all 12 trains are operating, sometimes carrying over 200,000 passengers a day.

Safety:-
Take a good look at this picture. Then tell us what the probability of a monorail ever colliding with an automobile, truck or school bus is. Monorails run on an exclusive grade-separated guideway. The result? Accidents are extremely rare. The way monorails are designed also makes derailments virtually impossible. This is why Monorails have an excellent safety record.

Limitation:-

  1. The Mud Island Monorail, in Memphis, Tennessee (2005)Monorail vehicles are not compatible with any other type of rail infrastructure, which makes (for example) through services onto mainline tracks impossible.


2- Monorail tracks do not easily accommodate at-grade intersections.
3- In an emergency, passengers may not be able to immediately exit because an elevated monorail vehicle is high above ground and not all systems have emergency walkways.

?

?OTHER APPLICATIONS OF MONORAIL

Industrial Monorails:-
The largest use of monorail principles exists in today's industry. These suspended systems feature many special devices for
assembly line production. There are dipping machines for enameling and painting, transfer bridges for floor to floor movement, lift a and drop sections for passing obstructions, turntables and switches
for variable routing, elevators for heavy loads, scales for weighing and other automatic equipment.

Military Monorails :-
The accuracy and efficiency of modern bombing necessitates dispersed storage areas of smaller size in the future. It is claimed
that a small portable monorail could make possible such dispersion, could be easily built with hand tools and could alleviate the need for clearing a right-of-way.

Conclusion:-
It?s a really true that monorails are supplementary transportation? to bus ,tracks & other types .this really must eco-friendly with major advantage compare to limitations.

 

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