Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10-9 meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components.
Nanotechnology i?s so new that no one is really sure what will come out of it. Even so, predictions range from the ability to reproduce things like diamonds and food to the world being devoured by self-replicating nanorobots. Many new nanotechnology research fields require a high degree of precision in both observing and manipulating materials at the atomic level.
The advanced nanorobotics technology needed to manipulate materials at this scale, a million times smaller than a grain of sand, is being developed .The integration of different technologies to act as simultaneous real-time nanoscale `eyes? and `hands?, including the advanced nanorobotics, high-resolution ion/electron microscopy, image processing/vision control and sophisticated sensors, will be the key to realising such nanomanipulation.
This seminar presents the major aspects of nanorobotics which are at the verge of implementation and would be no less than revolution in the field of medicine if brought into reality.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the
microscopic scale of a nanometer (10-9meters). More specifically, nanorobotics refers to
the still largely hypothetical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobotsanddevices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. As of 2010 nobody has yet built artificial non-biological nanorobots: they remain a hypothetical concept. The names nanorobots, nanoids, nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe these hypothetical devices .
Nanomachines are largely in the research-and-development phase , but some primitive molecular machines have been tested. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.5 nanometers across, capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. The first useful applications of nanomachines, if such are ever built, might be in medical technology, which might use them to identify and destroy cancer cells. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals, and the measurement of their concentrations, in the environment. Nanotechnology promises futuristic applications such as microscopic robots that assemble other machines or travel inside the body to deliver drugs or do microsurgery
Assuming the nanorobot isn't tethered or designed to float passively through the bloodstream, it will need a means of propulsion to get around the body. Because it may have to travel against the flow of blood, the propulsion system has to be relatively strong for its size. Another important consideration is the safety of the patient -- the system must be able to move the nanorobot around without causing damage to the host.
Fig: Nanorobot designers sometimes look at microscopic organisms for propulsion inspiration, like the flagellum on this e-coli cell.
Some scientists are looking at the world of microscopic organisms for inspiration. Paramecium move through their environment using tiny tail-like limbs called cilia. By vibrating the cilia, the paramecium can swim in any direction. Similar to cilia are flagella, which are longer tail structures. Organisms whip flagella around in different ways to move around.
Scientists in Israel created microrobot, a robot only a few millimeters in length, which uses small appendages to grip and crawl through blood vessels. The scientists manipulate the arms by creating magnetic fields outside the patient's body. The magnetic fields cause the robot's arms to vibrate, pushing it further through the blood vessels. The scientists point out that because all of the energy for the nanorobot comes from an external source, there's no need for an internal power source. They hope the relatively simple design will make it easy to build even smaller robots.
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