REMOTE CONTOL ROBOTIC CAR
INTRODUCTION TO ROBOTS
Robotics is the study of robots. Robots are machines that can be used to do jobs. It helps to reduce the human efforts and provide them ease. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing, and building new robots that serves various practical purposes.
For example: robotic arm can move large objects, robotics airplanes can fly without a pilot control and many more.
A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such as Honda's Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility (ASIMO) and TOSY's TOSY Ping Pong Playing Robot (TOPIO) to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patent assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, UAV drones such as General Atomics MQ-1 Predator, and even microscopic nano robots.
The branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, and cognition.
REQUIRMENTS TO BUILD A ROBOT:
- Firstly, a robot has some kind of frame, form or shape designed to achieve a particular task. For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud, might use caterpillar tracks.
- Robots have electrical components which power and control the machinery. For example, a robotic car would need some kind of power to move forward, backward, left or right.
- The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement (through motors), sensing and operation. Robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform basic operations.
- All robots contain some level of computer programming code. A program is how a robot decides when or how to do something. A robot with remote control programming has a preexisting set of commands that it will only perform if and when it receives a signal from a control source.
SIMPLE REMOTE CONTROL ROBOTIC CAR:
The PIC architecture is characterized by its multiple attributes:
- Separate code and data spaces (Harvard architecture).
- A small number of fixed-length instructions
- Most instructions are single-cycle (2 clock cycles, or 4 clock cycles in 8-bit models), with one delay cycle on branches and skips
- One accumulator (W0), the use of which (as source operand) is implied (i.e. is not encoded in the opcode)
- All RAM locations function as registers as both source and/or destination of math and other functions.
- A hardware stack for storing return addresses
- A small amount of addressable data space (32, 128, or 256 bytes, depending on the family), extended through banking
- Data-space mapped CPU, port, and peripheral registers
- ALU status flags are mapped into the data space
- The program counter is also mapped into the data space and writable (this is used to implement indirect jumps).
- There is no distinction between memory space and register space because the RAM serves the job of both memory and registers, and the RAM is usually just referred to as the register file or simply as the registers.
- Small instruction set to learn
- RISC architecture
- Built-in oscillator with selectable speeds
- Easy entry level, in-circuit programming plus in-circuit debugging PIC kit units available for less than $50
- Inexpensive microcontrollers
- Wide range of interfaces including I²C, SPI, USB, USART, A/D, programmable comparators, PWM, LIN, CAN, PSP, and Ethernet
- Availability of processors in DIL package makes them easy to handle for hobby use.
- One accumulator
- Register-bank switching is required to access the entire RAM of many devices
- Operations and registers are not orthogonal; some instructions can address RAM and/or immediate constants, while others can use the accumulator only.
Microchip PIC16F877A Microcontroller Features
- High-Performance RISC CPU
- Operating speed: 20 MHz, 200 ns instruction cycle
- Operating voltage: 4.0-5.5V
- Industrial temperature range (-40° to +85°C)
- 15 Interrupt Sources
- 35 single-word instructions
- All single-cycle instructions except for program branches (two-cycle)
Special Microcontroller Features :
- Flash Memory: 14.3 Kbytes (8192 words)
- Data SRAM: 368 bytes
- Data EEPROM: 256 bytes
- Self-reprogrammable under software control
- In-Circuit Serial Programming via two pins (5V)
- Watchdog Timer with on-chip RC oscillator
- Programmable code protection
- Power-saving Sleep mode
- Selectable oscillator options
- In-Circuit Debug via two pins
Peripheral Features :
- 33 I/O pins; 5 I/O ports
- Timer0: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit prescaler
- Timer1: 16-bit timer/counter with prescaler
- Can be incremented during Sleep via external crystal/clock
- Timer2: 8-bit timer/counter with 8-bit period register, prescaler and postscaler
- Two Capture, Compare, PWM modules
- 16-bit Capture input; max resolution 12.5 ns
- 16-bit Compare; max resolution 200 ns
- 10-bit PWM
- Synchronous Serial Port with two modes:
- SPI Master
- I2C Master and Slave
- USART/SCI with 9-bit address detection
- Parallel Slave Port (PSP)
- 8 bits wide with external RD, WR and CS controls
- Brown-out detection circuitry for Brown-Out Reset
- 10-bit, 8-channel A/D Converter
- Brown-Out Reset
- Analog Comparator module
- 2 analog comparators
- Programmable on-chip voltage reference module
- Programmable input multiplexing from device inputs and internal VREF
- Comparator outputs are externally accessible
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