Scrap Collecting Robot

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Project is very interesting. We are using Tsop1738 as a IR ? infrared receiver. We using relay coil to collect scrap. Coil need? 5 to 12v DC. Better voltage- better collecting power. Robot help us to collect scrap from every corner and from everywhere.

In this project we will control robot with infrared sensor remote. We will control different functions of moving robot. As we know the value of robotics it can be used in biomedical industry, domestic, food, leather, autoparts etc. In this project we will make remote which will have functions to control robot like forward, backward, right and left. There will be six functions. We will use 89c051 microcontroller for this function. We will give 9v supply to remote with 9v dc battery available in the market. We will use 7805 voltage regulator for 5v dc supply. For input to microcontroller there will be microswitches. There will be complementary push pull power amplifier after Microcontroller output.
For that we will use 548 npn transistors 558 pnp. It will amplify data so that it will not destroy in the way. After that it will be amplify and led will convert that signal into phpt signal . On receiver end phototransistor will amplify that signal and will give it to microcontroller. Microcontroller will give signal to optocoupler. Here optocoupler will? work as a isolator after that h bridge will amplify that signal and will give signal according to rxed signal
Automation requires precisely rotating motor which accelerates / decelerates very fast & stops at precise predetermined position without any error, and also has holding torque so that the motor-shaft position is maintained. AUTO CONTROLS make stepper motor controllers are based on H-bridge configuration with facility of having constant current supplied to the motor.
Stepper motor controllers are MOSFET based and utilize  high voltage D.C. Supply at constant current mode. Hence, the stepper motor can run at higher speed up to 1000 rpm and above. Stepper motor controllers can achieve the acceleration of 100 m/Sec2. to zero speed to stop the motor from running speed, with rated torque. The time of Acc & Dec. will vary as per the load and GD2 of the load to overcome inertia force.
the smallest step available is 0.9o. Hence stepper motor follows the step of 0.9o per step, It can be used in open loop system. Hence, the controllers become simpler.
Working ?
In this project we will use microcontroller which we divide project in two portions. In? transmitter



Look around. Notice the smart ?intelligent? systems? Be it the T.V, washing machines, video games, telephones, automobiles, aero planes, power systems, or any application having a LED or a LCD as a user interface, the control is likely to be in the hands of a micro controller!

Measure and control, that?s where the micro controller is at its best.

Micro controllers are here to stay. Going by the current trend, it is obvious that micro controllers will be playing bigger and bigger roles in the different activities of our lives.

So where does this scenario leave us? Think about it??

The world of Micro controllers

What is the primary difference between a microprocessor and a micro controller? Unlike the microprocessor, the micro controller can be considered to be a true ?Computer on a chip?.

In addition to the various features like the ALU, PC, SP and registers found on a microprocessor, the micro controller also incorporates features like the ROM, RAM, Ports, timers, clock circuits, counters, reset functions etc.

While the microprocessor is more a general-purpose device, used for read, write and calculations on data, the micro controller, in addition to the above functions also controls the environment.

We have used a whole lot of technical terms already! Don?t get worried about the meanings at this point. We shall understand these terms as we proceed further

For now just be aware of the fact, that all these terms literally mean what they say.

Bits and Bytes

Before starting on the 8051, here is a quick run through on the bits and bytes. The basic unit of data for a computer is a bit. Four bits make a nibble. Eight bits or two nibbles make a byte. Sixteen bits or four nibbles or two bytes make a word.

1024 bytes make a kilobyte or 1KB, and 1024 KB make a Mega Byte or 1MB.

Thus when we talk of an 8-bit register, we mean the register is capable of holding data of 8 bits only.

The 8051

The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory.

The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.

A note on ROM

The early 8051, namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programmable ROM. This type had the disadvantage of being highly unreliable.

The next in line, was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. Thus a program could be loaded, tested and erased using ultra violet rays. A new program could then be loaded again.

An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. This does not require ultra violet rays, and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself.

Finally there is the FLASH, which is an improvement over the EEPROM. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably, the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke, and not act on the individual cells. This results in reducing the time for erasure.

Understanding the basic features of the 8051 core

Let?s now move on to a practical example. We shall work on a simple practical application and using the example as a base, shall explore the various features of the 8051 microcontroller.

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